Typically, beginners will always think that the only kind of telescope is a telescope designed with lenses and eyepieces. However, this is only a refracting telescope, which was widely known thanks to Galileo’s inventions in the early 1600s.
In fact, there are reflecting telescopes based on mirrors, not just lenses. This type of telescope is designed with a mirror at the bottom of the tube and the eyepiece protrudes to the side. Isaac Newton invented this type of telescope in the mid-1600s, so it is often called the Newtonian reflecting telescope.
One question for new telescope users is the dissimilarity between refractor or a reflector telescope under $200 and which one is better. In this article, we will help you answer that question so that you make the best choice when buying a telescope.
What is A Refractor Telescope?
On the front of a refracting telescope, a curved lens is placed. When light passes through this lens, the light is bent and focused on a focal point in the optical tube. On the path of light, they place an eyepiece. People use a tripod to fix the telescope.
Nevertheless, you will have to kneel down to look through the eyepiece if the eyepiece is placed at the end of the tube and you point the telescope at the sky.
The light coming into the lens will go diagonally and will be bent at an angle of 90 degrees. This helps the position of the eyepiece to be adjusted so that the viewer will have a more convenient viewing position.
Typically, eyepieces are inserted diagonally. For daytime viewing, these refractor telescopes use diagonal lines at an angle of 45 degrees. However, when looking at the night sky, the diagonal line must be adjusted at an angle of 90 degrees.
Because the light is bent by the diagonal line, the image after going through the eyepiece will be reversed from left to right. However, in astronomy, the image is multidimensional, so this problem of left and right turn does not interfere with the observer.
When you want to see objects on the ground during the day through the refractor telescope, you can take a prism-shaped diagonal line to adjust this left / right flip.
All about Reflector Telescope (under $200)
This type of telescope is designed with an open-ended tube, a curved mirror, also known as the main mirror, placed at the bottom of the tube. This main mirror collects light and concentrates these rays into an auxiliary mirror that is partially placed on the tube.
To focus the light on the focus, the second mirror will be adjusted at an angle of 45 degrees. Unlike the above glass, this telescope doesn’t use diagonal lines to bend the light.
As illustrated, the Reflector Telescope is set up on a tripod. The mechanism of action is that light passes from the left to the mirror placed inside the right tube, after which the light is guided along a path to the eyepiece.
Therefore, this type of glass is only suitable for night vision because it provides reversible images. Due to the extended reflector design of the Reflector Telescope, the telescopes’ optical tubes are quite lengthy.
If a telescope has an 8 ”primary mirror adjusted at a focal ratio of 10 would call for a telescope tube which extends 80 inches. However, this long size will be quite inconvenient in practice, so people often adjust the focal ratio to F6 or lower.
In such a case, a tube that has 48 inches long will be suitable for an 8 ”F6 reflector.
Pros and cons of these two telescopes
The advantage of the Refracting Telescope is that at its center there are no obstructions. A mirror was designed to restrain some light from entering the tube to decrease the aperture.
Typically, telescopes will have five apertures, and the Refractor Telescope has the advantage of reducing the aperture to about 1 inch while retaining the ability to collect light, an important point in evaluating a telescope.
Moreover, thanks to the absence of secondary obstructions, Refractor Telescope will provide users with sharper images.
Chromatic aberration or CA is the most common disadvantage users encounter when using the Refracting Telescope. The light passing through the main lens will smash down its general color into multiple colors.
When the colors of the light do not reach the focus at the same time, there is a tendency to cause some color fringing on bright objects. However, this drawback has been overcome thanks to the use of two variations of refraction.
Newtonian Reflector Under $200
The price of a Newtonian reflector is the biggest advantage. The larger the size of a mirror, the cheaper it is to produce quality mirrors. For Newtonian Reflectors range from 2 “/ 50 mm to about 5” / 127 mm, the prices of those are quite similar.
However, when we get 5 ” or higher, the difference in cost becomes obvious. The difference of reflector telescope is that it can scale to 25 ”and larger. Although the price is cheap, the color quality of the image is still guaranteed.
The light is not separated into its color components, so users will not need to worry about chromatic aberrations. However, the disadvantage of the reflector telescope is the demand for regular collimation.
One difference of the Newtonian reflecting telescope is that the main mirror can be moved to align the optics thanks to the way they are mounted. Besides, for a large size Newtonian reflector, it will be easily modified by thermal expansion and contraction.
Which Would Be Better?
When choosing a telescope, you should consider the aperture. Large apertures allow you to adjust the magnification wider so you will see objects more clearly and more widely. Obviously, the larger the aperture is, the higher the price and the greater the weight.
If you are looking to own a telescope with an aperture of 4 or lower and pay attention to learning collimation then refraction is a telescope you are looking for. This type of telescope is also very solid and flexible.
You can easily take it with you when traveling or in your luggage when on board. In particular, to observe by refractor during the day, you just need to insert diagonal images exactly 45 degrees.
Conversely, if you want to see the night sky, you just need to switch to the 90-degree. Indeed, refraction is more versatile. On the other hand, if you want to buy a telescope with an aperture larger than 4 inches, you should buy a reflector telescope.
This type of telescope has a superior advantage in size and cost. When attaching a lens to a Dobsonian mount, this is a cost-effective solution that will keep your reflector telescope stable.
If you go to a Muslim star party where everyone carries a telescope, Newton/ Dobsonian designs are often the bigger ones.
In short, refractor or a reflector telescope under 200 all have their own advantages. Therefore, you should consider the cost and design factors to choose a suitable telescope.
What could be better than watching the vast universe with countless mysteries?
According to a lot of studies, 85% of people surveyed and tested don’t know well about “What is the difference between walking and hiking boots for wide feet?”. So, they often wear the wrong shoes when jogging or hiking.
We have all heard many kinds of boots like running boots, training boots, walking boots and hiking boots but not really understand their differences, advantages/disadvantages or the risks of using the wrong function of boots.
If put a pair of walking boots next to a pair of hiking boots and you will notice a few differences in their appearance. But there are many other differences that you cannot see with the naked eye.
So this article will analyze more to help you distinguish between walking and hiking boots for wide feet?
What is the difference between walking and hiking boots?
- Compared to walking boots, the outsoles of hiking boots are often more rugged, softer; while the sole of walking boots tends to be flatter, more smooth and more durable to run on flat roads.
- Midsoles’ hiking boots are often stiffer than walking shoes to create a stable substrate on uneven terrain.
- The uppers of the hiking boots are reinforced to protect your feet from rocks, roots and sharp objects along the way. Walking shoes don’t require this, which means they are usually lighter and more breathable.
Both walking and hiking shoes offer certain benefits for the runner. They are designed for two purposes. Initially, in order to deter your feet and body from being hurt as a result of repetitive impacts when running on the road.
Secondly, to maximize the speed of runners by clinging to a flat road surface or terrain. However, you need to consider choosing the right boots based on the following aspects:
Another feature to distinguish these two kinds of boots is as to the materials used to make walking and hiking Boots. Normally, lightweight materials are picked up to make the boots for walking.
While the heavier materials and thicker soles are often spent for boots for hiking, as they protect better for users’ feet when hiking on the rough ground, or even the harshest conditions.
As a matter of fact, when tending to buy a pair of boots, what kinds of terrain you are often going to run on is a compulsory thing that most people consider.
Are you intending to go through even and flat roads, horse-drawn roads, bicycle paths, rough roads or hiking roads? Are these roads full of hills, rocks, or streams? Do they require you to run through large obstacles like fallen trees in the middle of the road?
If you are going to run on these terrains, you should wear hiking boots. If you are going on a flat road, you should use walking boots.
When you determine what kind of surface you will run, you can consider the characteristics you will need in a pair of boots. Most hiking shoes will be cushioned that helps to protect joints as well as ankles, especially on uneven surfaces.
Shoe soles are also varied for each model. Compared to a regular pair of walking boots, hiking boots have a thicker sole.
One of the most visible differences between walking and hiking boots is the outsole (the bottom of the boots). The rubber part of hiking boots is usually softer than flat jogging boots, so it can grip and bend around obstacles on the road.
Walking boots have a flat, less undulating sole to create a stable surface, suitable for running on flat roads. The rubber part of this shoe can generally be rubbed often with flat surfaces than the rubber part of hiking boots.
The middle sole is the cushion and stability layer of boots, located between the outsoles and the upper part of the boots. In general, terrain hiking boots have a stiffer middle sole for more support on rough roads and uneven surfaces.
Some hiking boots also increase the protection of the feet from sharp objects, such as rocks and logs but still make the runner feel like hiking on the even road.
In addition, hiking boots also protect and keep the shape intact for your boots when you put your feet on rough surfaces. The height of midsoles can vary more or less depending on the function of each pair of boots.
The number of cushions that suits you is also largely dependent on personal preferences, but your feet’s shape and running terrain also play a significant role.
The boots uppers are all parts above the middle sole and are usually made from breathable materials like polyester, nylon and nylon mesh.
Off-road running boots are made more rugged and durable than flat running boots to protect your boots and feet from the objects you will encounter on your runs, such as stones, roots and dry wood.
This means that the upper is frequently reinforced with synthetic overlays in key locations, such as around the toes, heels and the edges of the shoes.
The upper part of some running boots has a lining or waterproof coating to keep the boots from getting wet. Waterproof boots can be quite good in wet conditions.
Sharp rocks, roots, and foliage can be harmful to your feet and lower legs. Trail-running boots have a protective coating on top to prevent obstacles from poking and tearing the boots.
Many hiking boots come with ankle leggings. The ankle leggings attached to the upper part of the boots can prevent debris from shooting into the shoes and is especially useful when running too fast or on muddy roads.
When you run on a flat road, your shoes will not be able to rub on any obstacles. For this reason, walking boots do not need too much reinforcement in the upper part and instead, they have plenty of mesh to keep the shoes lightweight and breathable.
That’s all about What is the difference between walking and hiking boots for wide feet?.
Hopefully, with these sharings, you will choose the best boots for your feet and protect your health.
For a long time, natural essential oils have brought practical benefits to people, not only in health but also in the field of beauty, skincare, therapy, etc. However, like other products, essential oils need to use the right dose to avoid causing unintended harm.
How many drops of essential oil should I put in my diffuser? is the question of most customers who have been using essential oils wonder. Let’s find the answer through the article below!
Essential Oils diffusing – Modern health care therapy
The ancients often called essential oils to be the quintessence of nature, a wonderful gift that nature bestowed on humans. This concept is not wrong, because to extract a small bottle of essential oils, it takes a lot of plant-based ingredients.
It may be one or more parts of an herb, such as stem, bark, flower, leaf, root, etc. According to scientists, the vitality of plants, including life and energy, is all gathered in essential oils.
Therefore, the same herb, if dried, the medicinal value is only 1/100 compared to extracted into essential oil. And in a bottle of only about 20ml of essential oil, we can find hundreds of unique compounds.
It is these wonderful compounds that have created the miraculous function of essential oils. Today, when the speech of life is more and more hustle, modern people use essential oil more often than before, because of its great effective effects.
Instead of applying perfume, spraying room aroma and taking supplements … many people choose to steam the essential oil to enjoy the fragrance, just remove the bad air in the room, and at the same time disinfect, improve mental clarity, etc.
Why should use the right amount of essential oil to put in the diffuser?
The natural essential oil has a strong therapeutic effect. Natural essential oils are extracted from flowers, bark, fruit, etc. mainly by the process of steam distillation.
A large number of ingredients are needed to extract the essential oils, so natural oils are not cheap. You don’t have to waste money by using too much essential oil at a time.
Not all essential oil scents are equally powerful. The softer aroma of essential oils does not mean that it is not beneficial to you. Excessive use of essential oils can cause unpleasant symptoms
When you use too much essential oil can make the scent very strong and uncomfortable. In the case, you have a stuffy nose or for any reason but don’t smell good, you may still experience some unpleasant symptoms.
When you overdose on essential oils, you may feel like you are sick. Some signs you may experience when using an overdose of essential oil:
- The aroma of essential oils is very strong
- Itchy, stinging & watery eyes
- Headache & dizziness
- Nausea & vomiting
If you, unfortunately, encounter the signs just mentioned, immediately pour the part of the water is steaming in the diffuser, and open all the doors, and windows for the scent to fly away. Generally do everything to create a cool, pleasant space.
Note: most natural oils have a pleasant smell, only aromatherapy oils give a strong and unpleasant odor.
How much Essential Oil to add in your diffuser
Use the amount of essential oil according to the water capacity of the diffuser. Essential oil diffusers have many capacities and sizes.
The smallest size is usually 100ml. You can add some essential oil drops to the diffuser according to the following ratio.
- Put 3-5 drops of essential oil for 100ml of water
- Add 6-10 drops of essential oil to 200ml of water
- Add 10-15 drops of essential oil to 300ml of water
- Put 15-20 drops of essential oil for 400ml of water
- Add 20-25 drops of essential oil to 500ml of water
However, this amount may vary depending on economic conditions, preferences, scents, as well as large or small room sizes. When in a large room area should choose the diffuser with large capacity, strong diffusion and use more essential oils.
Some users wonder: “Why do they still not smell good when using the same dosage as above? The cause is that when staying in a scent for a long time, the nose will familiar with this scent.
Therefore, the essential oil manufacturer or the store all recommend not using one type of essential oil for a long time. Should use at least 2 kinds of essential oils or if familiar with the smell you can stop using 1-2 days and then use again.
Why is Essential Oil Dilution important?
As we all know essential oils are a liquid containing volatile compounds extracted from the parts of plants, herbs. To extract a liter of essential oils, people often use a lot of raw materials.
Therefore essential oils are often very strong and are recommended to be diluted when used. According to many experts about essential oil, dilution of essential oils has two main safety concerns.
> to avoid skin reactions: irritation, sensitization and photosensitive toxicity.
> to avoid systemic toxicity, such as fetal toxicity, liver toxicity, carcinogenicity, and neurotoxicity.
So we have found the answer to the question of How many drops of essential oil should I put in my diffuser? Hope this article will help you know how to use essential oils most effectively!
It’s a great option to grow autoflowering cannabis. Thought you may be new to cultivation or a veteran, the latest uber-potent autoflowering will impress you.
In this article, we will give you all the essential information you need to know about growing great cannabis with autoflowering seeds. Keep reading to get them.
The Advantages and Disadvantages of Growing Autoflowering Cannabis
There are many reasons why you should consider autoflowering varieties for indoor as well as outdoor cannabis:
- When you let them grow outdoors, they can produce buds. Therefore, it’s not essential to worry about running a light deprivation system.
- If you grow cannabis indoors, you can grow strains quickly from start to finish. In fact, they normally complete maturation within 3 months.
- Actually, you can let your autoflowering cannabis get more than 12 hours of sunlight per day. They can produce bigger buds compared to many regular cannabis plants.
However, there are also many reasons why these plants are not as common as regular cannabis plants. First, autoflowering plants don’t create large yields. They also include higher electricity bills.
There is a wide range of choices to choose from when it comes to types of autoflowering seeds.
How to Grow Autoflowering Cannabis Strains
In order to grow autoflowering cannabis strains, you have to prepare some important things. In fact, they can be able to grow quickly. Let’s take a look at these tips for the success in your gardening.
Training Your Plants
It’s important to train your plants in their vegetative growth. This period is short for autoflowering cannabis. In fact, it just should be 2 weeks for the limit.
In order to start, you should top them after developing three nodes so as to promote a more even canopy. Besides, you can also consider pulling it down in order to create new upward growth.
When they do begin flowering, don’t top them. Then, prune them for no more than 7 days into flowering.
Growing autoflowering plants means that you are letting them flower when they need to be in vegetative growth.
It’s not essential to follow photoperiod light cycles. Therefore, many growers start these plants early in the season of Mar or late in the season of Sep. During this time, you still need to keep them warm to grow.
To combat the risk of rot, you should grow them in a greenhouse in order to give them protection from the elements.
Go Easy on Feeding
For autoflowering plants, you needn’t feed them heavily because of their small size. Also, they have a short amount of time in the vegetative cycle. You just need to feed them very lightly.
They require a small number of vegetative nutrients when your plants reach two weeks of life. Feed them a higher amount of nutrients gradually over time till they’re six or seven weeks old.
These plants don’t have time to develop a canopy. That’s why you keep buds lower down on your plants. This is also the reason why you should harvest them sequentially.
It seems to not easy to choose the time to harvest. Normally, you have to check your plant’s trichomes to know when 59% of these plants are amber.
Keep in mind it’s important to stop watering your plants 1 or 2 days before harvesting them.
Prepare Your Next Crop
If you want to receive the most out of autoflowering seeds, you should prepare your next batch of plants. That’s why it’s best to pop seeds before harvesting the current plants.
Because you are growing autoflowering plants, there may be some plants which just start out in the same room.
Avoid giving your plants too much water because the roots may be suffocated. Then, they can’t carry nutrients to the plants. If you over water your plants, you will have to face stunted growth. And, this may be a nutrient issue.
It’s best to weigh them with their pots dry. You just need to add 5% or 10% to that weight.
How to Find Autoflowering Cannabis Seeds
There is a lot of autoflowering cannabis seeds to choose from.
That’s why you easily get overwhelmed by all the options.
There are some points you need to consider when choosing such as the type of growing condition you tend to plant them, the ratio of CBD and THC you want in the strain, as well as the taste of the weed you like.
If the money is not a problem for you, you can choose feminized seeds because they can increase your yield.
It’s easy to find autoflowering cannabis seeds through seed banks. You also can buy them online. Besides, you can also find them at some local dispensaries.
How to Grow Autoflowers with LED Grow Lights?
If you use LED grow lights, you will needn’t change the light to match the stage of your plants. For examples, you need to provide your plants with a lot of blue light in the vegetative phase. During flowering, growers need to switch MH lights to HPS lights.
Actually, there are all the colors found in LED grow lights. Therefore, it’s not essential to switch the lights between phases. However, don’t forget that it is only true with certain lights. Although you needn’t switch to a different light, you still may need to control manually the switches.
Nowadays, the process of growing autoflowering cannabis plants has become more and more popular. This is a great method that helps you to harvest from a seeding within 2 months. This also requires only a small space to begin. Hope that our post today is useful for you. Have fun and good growing!
The essential oil diffusers are known as the heraldsof the quintessence of health and beauty industry. Moreover, it is also replacement remedy that refers the conventional methods of alleviating nourishments by taking the herbs, inhaling, smoking, etc.
The use of essential oils had appeared since the ancient civilization period of time in China, Egypt, Greek,and Rome.
Today, the essential oil diffusers are used as an aromatherapeutic treatment of the happening diffusion form. In addition, it provides the fragrance of the essential oils and herbal species for healing distillation.
The main categories of the essential oil diffusers that you may come across
Nebulizing diffusers have the same platforms of the basic perfume sprays, and they are rated one of the best oil diffusers in the market today.
On the one hand, nebulizing diffusers could put the essential oil into the space of the environment in the form of blobs with the automatic timer in order to avoid the unwanted waste of the essential oil.
Ultrasonic diffusers use the electronic current to make a disk instrument in order to release a vibration that will create the spread of the essential oil micro molecules into the air.
To cause this happening, ultrasonic diffusers need to have a huge amount of power, but they could discharge a mist to be suited in the fragrance environment.
Evaporative oil diffusers
Evaporative oil diffusers will work based on the wind – blow diffusion of the essential oils with a controlling process.
They have one part of the essential oils that cause the eliminating of the healing components to the essential oils.
The aromatherapy process could not expand the maximum level if the vaporous oil diffusers are used.
Heat diffusers make the essential oils quickly vaporize and they could not able to increase the potential combination of the essential oils being used.
Once using the heat diffusers, you will reduce the waste of energy and save the budget as well as they do not noise at all.
The function of the essential oil diffusers
When using the essential oil diffusers, all of the molecules given out the air from one space to another space as well.
Most of the essential oil diffusers could start its process due to the heat and the energy, permeation is being known the best natural method of the essential oils as they are the main ingredients of the aromatherapy treatment.
Essential oils could enter to the brain cells to restorative them and build a high sense of physical, mental and well – being healthy.
Top health benefits of using the essential oil diffusers
- Cleans and removes the bad particles in the air to kill all kinds of bacteria and virus;
- Creates the great impact of the aromatherapy and control the mood;
- Provides the amount of aura and positive energy;
- Reduces the anxiety and the pressure;
- Shakes out the tremendous fragrance from one space to another space;
- Boosts your confidence through creating much positive thinking;
- Balances hormones;
- Heals the skin issues;
- Fights off insects;
- Decreases the pain, especially chronic pain;
- Easily breathe;
- Upgradescognitive function;
- Revamps the digestion system;
- Diminishes cellulitis and wrinkles
Some popular essential oils to try and get experience
Bergamot is made from the Citrus Beragamia tree which has found in the Southeast Asia region. People could found the tree in Italy and along the Ivory Coast nowadays. Bergamot is a common aromatherapy oil and is being used in colognes and perfumes.
In the medical treatments, Bergamotcould reduce the anxiety, stress, depression, anorexia state and other infections like the skin irritation, psoriasis, and eczema. On the other hand, it might help the liver, digestive system, spleen, work better.
With the Bergamot, you should not drop it directly in your skin as it might burn your skin cells, especially in the sunlight. Once using the oil, you need to stay away from the sun.
Marjoram could treat the hyperactivity and the anxiety perfectly which are the best solutions for these states.
Furthermore, it contributes its function in constipation and cramps due to the popular Greek plant.
With the leaves and flowers, Marjoram oil is steam purified to reduce asthma or sinusitis symptoms as well.
For those who have the insomnia state, tension or headaches, you should add a few drops of the Marjoram oil in the bath water to reduce these problems. Moreover, Marjoram oil also boosts the circulation and reliefs the pressure.
Cedarwood is made from the Juniperus Virginian which is a tree in the North America area, and it was born in the ancient Egypt region.
Cedarwood could mix to the facial creams, mist inhalation, and massage oils to cut down the stress, anxiety, and pressure.
The oil also plays an important element of reducing the skin problems and, the urinary tract and the respiratory issues.
Please bear in mind that Cedarwood oil could not directly drop in the skin areas and pregnant women should not use it during this careful time.
Chamomile oil is called from the herbs as well as the Roman Chamomile and German Chamomile from the leaves and the plants.
Chamomile oil comes from the growing leaves throughout the steam distillation to become massage oils or mix with the lotion and the cream. The Roman also used Chamomile as the mouthwash as the reduction element naturally.
To be inflammation component, the Chamomile oil is one of the best treatment in the natural medication for the urinary tract and the digestion system.
For those who have the allergy of the Ragweed ingredient, you should not use the Chamomile oil, and pregnant women could not take this oil during the pregnancy period of time as well.
In a nutshell, essential oils have become to be used in the massage application since the 1950s, and the use of essential oils were the main part of replacement as well as comprehensive health treatments.
Essential oil diffusers are better than the conventional methods of the candles to use the essential oil diffusion. Candles could remove the natural fragrance of the essential oils, and the application of the essential oils do not work on beauty and health benefits.